About

Universal Electromagnetics Ltd is a consultancy company set up for and run by the principal consultant, Dr Andrew Mackay, in August 2017. Based in Leominster, Herefordshire, Dr Mackay has experience in most areas of classical electromagnetics, a science and engineering discipline associated with the wave-like (non-quantum) properties of electric and magnetic fields as described by Maxwell’s equations.

Andrew Mackay completed a PhD on numerical electromagnetic scattering methods in 1988 at Swansea University, and subsequently worked at RSRE Malvern (now part of QinetiQ). His early work included numerical software for the analysis of arbitrary periodic closely coupled multi-layer frequency selective surfaces (FSS) and the design of novel structures, a subject for which he was awarded the John Benjamine prize (together with Dr John Gallagher). This work included the analysis of FSS (many of which would now be called metasurfaces) with interlocking elements spanning more than one unit cell. See research topic FSS. While at RSRE he also developed parametric methods for extracting diffraction coefficients from numerically generated radar cross section (RCS) data, constructed models for the effectiveness of optically controlled silicon for use in RCS control and provided analysis of plasmas (low pressure and atmospheric) for this purpose. He was also the first person to demonstrate the use of chaos theory as a means to explain certain characteristics of RCS ray tracing software in engine ducts. (see, article and references in publications and research topic Chaos).

After  RSRE he joined Q-par Angus Ltd (now part of Steatite Ltd) where he provided theoretical consultancy and antenna design work. This included the implementation of in-house FSS analysis software (fss analysis method) and Physical Optics (PO) software (PO_userg) for shaped reflector analysis. Consultancy work included extensions to the work of Brewitt-Taylor and Rozanov on the design and fundamental limitations of radar absorbing materials including frequency selective surfaces (one open publication fssram) and magnetic materials. He  worked on and prototyped non-reciprocal screens for RCS control, wrote multi-layer bianisotropic material analysis software and was much involved in balun design and analysis. He wrote the first paper describing the fundamental limits of microwave baluns (balun_limits). He also contributed to the dispersion theory of negative refractive materials (negrefr) and published on the possibility of developing a new sensor method based on bistatic correlation of spark discharges (spark imagery).

More recently he has established methods for the analysis, characterisation and ISAR (Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar) imaging properties of metamaterials whose substructure is random, rather than perfectly periodic. This is important because metamaterial construction can almost never be realised with perfect periodicity. The introduction of randomness gives rise to diffuse (inhomogeneous) scattering and non-absorption losses not otherwise present.